The most common format for a modern evening of Lebanese zajal is a debate or verbal duel between two or more poets followed by a recitation of love poetry ghazal. To the ear of a non-Arabic speaker and sometimes even to that of a native , a phrase spoken in formal standard Arabic fus-ha and repeated in colloquial Lebanese often sounds substantially different  -considerably more so than in the case of, say, classical vs. Retrieved from ” https: This difference is due, at least partly, to the colloquial having a clear substratum made up of extinct or semi-extinct non-Arabic dialects of Levantine Semitic languages , such as Aramaic , Syriac and Canaanite , as well as having later infusions of Persian e. Pens, Swords, And the Springs of Art: One metrical system is quantitative and is clearly based on some of the strict so-called Khalili meters of classical Arabic poetry for instance the m3anna and related forms scan according to the classical sari3 , rajaz and wafir meters, and the other is stress-syllabic for instance many sub-forms of the qerradi are clearly based on Syriac metrics, such as the syllabic metric of the Afframiyyat homilies attributed to the 4th-century St. Genre, Meter, and Verbal Duel.
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This page was last edited on 10 Novemberat Zajal had its great ascendency as a popular art form in the 19th century when numerous poets contributed to its refinement in content and form. One metrical system is quantitative and is clearly based on some of the strict so-called Khalili meters of classical Arabic poetry for instance the m3anna and related forms scan according to the classical sari3rajaz and wafir meters, and the other is stress-syllabic for instance many sub-forms of the qerradi are clearly based on Syriac metrics, such as the syllabic metric of the Afframiyyat homilies attributed to the 4th-century St.
Oral TraditionVol. Part of a series on. The elevation of this canon to scholarly attention was not helped by the fact that the cause of colloquial Lebanese was espoused only by ultra-nationalists especially during the divisive Lebanese Civil War, who sought to claim a Lebanese culture distinct from that of the Arabs.
This regional bias is also reflected in the imagery of zajal, which mirrors more the bucolic and sensual sensibilities of the rural countryside than the cerebral, and formal concerns of urban intellectuals. The relegation of the colloquial literature, including zajal, to a sub-literary class was further solidified by the rise of pan-Arabism in the s and 60s at a time when the Lebanese schooling system witnessed its widest expansion and standardization.
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To the ear of a non-Arabic speaker and sometimes even to that of a nativea phrase spoken in formal standard Arabic fus-ha and repeated in colloquial Lebanese often sounds substantially different  -considerably more so than in the case of, say, classical vs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Many Near-Eastern, Arabian and Mediterranean cultures including Greece, Algeria, Morocco, Spain and southern France had, or still have, rich semi-improvised, semi-sung colloquial poetry traditions, which share some traits with Lebanese zajal, such as the verbal duel e.
Lebanese zajal is a semi-improvised, semi-sung or declaimed form of poetry in the colloquial Lebanese Arabic dialect. The ease with which this Arabization occurred is due to the fundamental kinship between Arabic and the local dialects -all being Semitic and thus based on derivations from triconsonantal triliteral roots.
Today, many tens of professional zajal poets tour the Lebanese countryside and expatriate communities around the world performing to audiences of thousands of aficionados. A study of the spoken Arabic of Baskinta.
Genre, Meter, and Verbal Duel.
Traditionally cosmopolitan communities e. The Development of Lebanese Zajal: Although many audio and video recordings of zajal events have been made, especially on Lebanese TV during the s, 70s and 80s, there has been little effort to properly transcribe or archive these recordings at national or university libraries for serious scholarly research.
Views Read Edit View history. The earliest practitioner of zajal in what is present-day Lebanon is thought  to be the Bishop Gabriel Al-Qla3i Al-Hafadialthough some scholarship  traces Lebanese zajal back almost two centuries earlier talihh a poet by the name of Souleiman Al-Ashlouhi and a few of his contemporaries, and in particular to a single poem inthe year of the destruction of Tripoli in present north Lebanon by the Mamluks.
It is most alive in Lebanon today, and the Maghreb and particularly Algeriaand in the Levantespecially in LebanonPalestine and in Jordan where professional zajal practitioners can attain high levels of recognition and popularity. The whole is accompanied by a chorus with tambourines and other percussion instruments. Talin seems to be a consensus  among the few scholars who have seriously studied the metrics of zajal that it follows two distinct metrical systems.
Both kinds of metrics in zajal are subject to fluid alteration by musical accentuation and syncopation  which is possible due to the colloquial’s malleability and its inherent allowance like Syriac to erode inflections and internal voweling. Retrieved from ” https: Zajal is semi-improvised and semi-sung and is often performed in the format of a debate between zajjalin poets who improvise the zajal.
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The most common format for a modern evening of Lebanese zajal is a debate or verbal duel between two or more poets followed by a recitation of love poetry ghazal. While there is little evidence of the exact origins of the zajal, the earliest recorded zajal poet was the Andalusian poet Ibn Quzman who lived from to A consequence of this socio-politically-conditioned hamddan is that the rich canon of colloquial poetry, of which zajal is the foremost hamdaan, remains mostly unwritten and practically never part of curricula at schools and universities although a few post-graduate theses have treated some aspects of the zajal tradition.
The meet often concludes with a love lament, typically in the Shruqi form.
Today, the majority of the educated Lebanese do not know a m3anna from a qerradi the two most common metrical forms of zajal and are likely to be more familiar with a few forms of Hamsan prosody e. The regional variation in the appreciation of zajal in Lebanon mirrors to a remarkable extent the ethnic and sectarian fragmentation, which ta,ih despite six decades of national co-habitation. This difference is due, at least partly, to the colloquial having a clear substratum made up of extinct or semi-extinct non-Arabic dialects of Levantine Semitic languagessuch as AramaicSyriac and Canaaniteas well as having later infusions of Persian e.
Its roots may be as ancient as Pre-Islamic Arabic poetrybut various similar manifestations of zajal can be traced to 10thth-century Moorish Spain Al-Andalusand specifically to the colloquial poet Ibn Quzman Cordoba, The statement that none of the extant oral poetry traditions can rival Lebanese zajal in its sophistication, metric variety, extended lineage, and continued evolution may be arguable, but it is hard to contest the fact that none of them enjoys its ardent popularity.