In both the comparisons, the brain regions involved in sensory perception and recall posterior cingulate cortex involved in sense of self-motion, fusiform and lingual gyri involved in visual information processing or evaluation of present location medial prefrontal cortex were initially activated Figures 10A,B , 11A — C. Furthermore, the cingulate sulcus in the posterior cingulate cortex has been reported to be involved in sense of self-motion in response to optical flow Wall and Smith, ; Cardin and Smith, The well-worn route and the path less traveled: Twelve healthy right-handed male university subjects mean age, Current source density analysis of the ERPs indicated that multiple parallel neural systems were active during spatial updating.


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sLORETA – Neurofeedback AllianceNeurofeedback Alliance

Solreta temporoparietal and prefrontal network for retrieving the spatial context of lifelike events. After these three learning trials control phasethe subjects were required to perform the same task three times, except that the 10 circular checkpoints and green line were not shown sporeta the virtual town test phase. In the present study, we could not classify the subjects based on their navigation strategies since they were required to navigate in the fixed route to receive the same visual stimuli in the virtual space.

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EEG based brain source localization comparison of sLORETA and eLORETA.

Previous noninvasive studies reported that the right middle and inferior temporal cortex were activated during visual imagery of landmarks, and during encoding and recall of spatial relationships with objects Ghaem et al.

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Self-motion ideothetic information is derived from the integration of vestibular information from the otoliths and semicircular canals, proprioceptive information from the muscles, tendons, and joints, motor efferent copies, and optical flow. However, the same beep sound was generated when they reached each checkpoint.

LORETA: low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography

Instead, a tone was presented when the subjects entered the reference points where they were then required to trace the 10 invisible spatial reference points corresponding to the checkpoints.

Aguirre and D’Esposito, ; Aguirre et al.

All subjects were treated in strict compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the U. An event-related brain potential ERP sign of the eloreta evaluation of novelty.

In the test phase, larger vertex-positive ERPs were observed compared with the control phase. Furthermore, behavioral studies suggest that the egocentric system and allocentric system work in parallel during spatial updating and navigation Burgess, ; Harvey et al. In this paper, a general family of linear imaging methods with exact, zero error localization lsoreta point-test sources is presented.


All units in millimeters. During slorea spatial navigation, individuals usually use mental imagery to internally represent spatial information, such as landmarks and routes, and use this information to navigate the environment Farah, ; Davis and Coltheart, ; Brunsdon et al. Furthermore, landmark agnosia has been associated with lesions of the lingual gyrus Slorefa and D’Esposito, This method solves what is called the inverse problem: Use at your own risk, and do not expect immediate help.

EEG alpha map series: Updating of visual space across horizontal saccades in cerebellar and thalamic lesion patients.

These findings suggest that not only updating processes but also learning and consolidation processes take place simultaneously. After setting up the electrodes, the subjects were given three trials to learn the navigation route and the layout of the virtual town. The present study at least indicated common neural networks among the subjects during spatial updating.


Therefore, the method is non-parametric, and computes the empirical probability distribution, and does not rely nor needs normality. During eyes open, the anterior cingulate sends theta-alpha activity to other frontal regions. This problem has no unique solution. In piloting, the navigator updates his or her current position and orients within the environment by using external cues, such as significant landmarks specific buildings, intersections, etc.

On the other hand, previous fMRI studies reported that the posterior insula cortex encodes sense of self-motion in response to optical flow Cardin and Smith,and this area was shown to be activated during mental navigation along memorized routes Ghaem et al. A Navigation route in the virtual town.


Representative recordings of joystick movements and EEGs from one subject in the test phase are shown in Figure 3. Furthermore, previous virtual navigation studies reported that the parahippocampal gyrus contains a region in its posterior extent called the parahippocampal place area, which shows increased activity in response to scenes, such as photographs of landscapes Epstein dloreta al.

Figure 11 illustrates the brain regions in which significant increases in current source density were observed, in comparison with the control phase.